Category Archives: Projects


Junkers EF 132 (Antares Models, Resin)

TYPE: Long-range turbojet bomber. Project


POWER PLANT: Six Junkers Jumo 012 turbojet engines, rated at 2,500 kp thrust each


COMMENT: The Junkers EF 132 was one of the last aircraft project developments undertaken by Junkers in WWII, and was the culmination of the Junkers Ju 287 design started in 1942. The shoulder-mounted wings were swept back at a 35 degree angle and featured a small amount of anhedral. Six Junkers Jumo 012 jet engines, each of which developed 2,500 kp of thrust, were buried in the wing roots. Wind tunnel results showed the advantages of having the engines within the wing, rather than causing drag by being mounted below the wing surfaces. Several wooden mockups were built of the wing sections, in order to find the best way to mount the engines without wasting too much space while at the same time providing maintenance accessibility.  The landing flaps were designed to be split flaps, and the goal was to make the gearing and operation simple. Because of the high placement of the wings to the fuselage, an unbroken bomb bay of 12 meters could be utilized in the center fuselage.  The tail plane was also swept back and the EF 132 had a normal vertical fin and rudder. An interesting landing gear arrangement was planned, that consisted of a nose wheel, two tandem main wheels beneath the center rear fuselage, and outrigger-type wheels under each outer wing. A fully glazed, pressurized cockpit located in the extreme fuselage nose held a crew of five. Armament consisted of two twin 20mm cannon turrets (one located aft of the cockpit, the other beneath the fuselage) and a tail turret containing another twin 20mm cannon. All of the defensive armaments were remotely controlled from the cockpit, and a bomb load of 4000-5000 kg was envisioned to be carried.
A wind tunnel model was tested in early 1945, and a 1:1 scale wooden mockup was also built at the Dessau Junkers facility to test the placement of various components, and also to check different air intake openings in the wing leading edge for the turbojet engines. The development stage had progressed far when the Soviets overran the Dessau complex and took possession of all of the Ju 287 and Junkers EF 131 and Junkers EF132 designs and components. The Soviets gave its approval for the bombed out Junkers Dessau factory to be partially rebuilt, the wind tunnels repaired and the turbojet engine test and manufacturing facilities to be put back into operation. In October 1946, the whole complex and the German engineers were transferred to GOZ No.1 (Gosoodarstvenny Opytnyy Zavod, State Experimental Plant), at Dubna in the Soviet Union, to continue development of the EF 131 and EF 132. Design work on the EF 132 continued under Dr. B. Baade at OKB-1 (the design bureau attached to GOZ No.1), under order of Council of Ministers (COM) directive No.874-266, an unpowered example was constructed to gather additional data, but only slow progress was made before the project was terminated on June 1948, by COM directive 2058-805 (Ref.: 17. 24).

Blohm & Voss Bv P. 188.04-01 (Unicraft Models, Resin)

TYPE: High-speed bomber. Project


POWER PLANT: Four Junkers Jumo 004C turbojet engines, rated at 1,020 kp each


COMMENT:  With its Blohm & Voss Bv P.188 bomber projects the aircraft company proposed several different designs that would have been powered by four powerful turbojet engines. Most unusual was a long, specifically W-shaped wing design. The wings were placed –­ differing of project – from high to low on the fuselage side. Common to all projects was the layout of wings: their inner halves were swept back 20 degrees while the outer halves were swept 20 degrees forward. It was hoped that this arrangement would provide a better performance, both at high and low speeds.
The Blohm & Voss Bv P.188 bomber project had three different known variants. Blohm & Voss Bv P.188.01 was powered by four turbojets placed in separate nacelles under the wings. The W-shaped wing was placed high on the fuselage, the tail section was of a conventional type.
Very similar in design was the Blohm & Voss Bv P.188 02 except for a smaller, slightly raised cockpit, the wings were placed in mid-fuselage and a tail with a twin rudder arrangement.
The last design was the Blohm und Voss P.188.04 turbojet bomber. The fuselage center section was designed as an armored steel shell which was to hold the fuel supply, with the forward and rear sections being bays for the tandem twin main landing gear wheels. The W-shaped wing was place low on the fuselage and had a constant 3 degree dihedral. A crew of two sat in tandem in an extensively glazed, pressurized cockpit, which was flush with the fuselage. Four Junkers Jumo 004C turbojet engines were mounted in two nacelles, which were located beneath each wing, very similar to the Arado Ar 234C “Blitz” (“Lightning”) turbojet bomber. There were also an auxiliary ‘outrigger’ type landing gear outboard of the engine nacelles, these being more to steady the aircraft, and did not touch the ground when it was on an even keel. The tail was of a twin fin and rudder design, with a dihedral tail plane and the extreme tail had an airbrake. Armament consisted of two remote-controlled FDL 131 Z twin 13mm machine guns, guided by two PVE 11 periscopes aft of the cockpit, and firing to the rear. A bombload of 2000 kg could be carried externally. None of these futuristic projects were realized (Ref: 17, 24).

Messerschmitt Me 262 HG III (Frank Airmodell, Resin)

TYPE: High-speed experimental aircraft. Project


POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 004D-1 turbojet engines, rated at 930 kp thrust each

PERFORMANCE: 683 mph at 19.685 ft

COMMENT: The final layout of the Messerschmitt Me 262 “Schwalbe” (“Swallow”) did not come up to all expectations of perfectionist Willy Messerschmitt. He argued that at least the concept of the new revolutionary aircraft is a result of many compromise and need to be improved. One goal is the high speed that can be reached by a turbojet driven aircraft.
Already in 1939 when the first design studies began what later became the Messerschmitt Me 262 Willy Messerschmitt proposed the installation of the turbojet engines into the wing roots in order to reduce drag and save weight. But at that time the plan failed due to the rapid changing dimensions of the first “Sondertriebwerke” (“Exceptional power plants”) as the new turbojet engines are called..
Yet another possibility to reduce drag in high-speed flight was the introduction of swept-back wings. In 1935 Prof. Busemann, an aeronautical research scientist at the aerodynamic institute of the University of Göttingen, discovered the benefits of the swept wing for aircraft at high speeds. He presented a paper on the topic at the Volta Conference at Rome in 1935. The paper concerned supersonic flow only. At the time of his proposal, flight much beyond 300 miles per hour had not been achieved and it was considered an academic curiosity. Nevertheless, he continued working with the concept, and by the end of the year had demonstrated similar benefits in the transonic region as well.
By early 1940 the first precise research findings on swept back wings were available to the German aircraft industry and Messerschmitt proposed in April 1941 to fit up the piston engine driven Messerschmitt Me 262 V1 with a 35 degree swept back wing. Nevertheless, at that time priority was given to the mass-production of the Messerschmitt Me 262 “Schwalbe” (“Swallow”). But with the introduction of this phenomenal aircraft the influence of critical Mach-number (“compressibility”) on subsonic speed became noticeable. In early 1944 research work on development of a high-speed variant of the Messerschmitt Me 262 was done again in three steps as so called “Hoch-Geschwindigkeitsjäger” , suffix “HG” (“High-speed fighter”):

Messerschmitt Me 262 HG I
The leading edge of the inner wing as well as of the vertical tail was increased to 45 degree, the leading edge of the horizontal tail was swept back to 40 degree, a shallow, low-drag cockpit canopy was installed, and the muzzles were faired over.

Messerschmitt Me 262 HG II
A new wing with 35 degree sweep was installed, the engine nacelle was improved, a shallow, low-drag canopy and a butterfly tail-plane was provided.

Messerschmitt Me 262 HG III
Improvements were a new 45 degree swept-back wing, installation of turbojet engines in wing-root, low-drag canopy and swept-back tail-plane.
The last variant was intensively discussed and tested especially the installation of more powerful turbojet engines (Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011). The end of WWII stopped all further work on the Messerschmitt Me 262 HG III (Ref.: 20, 24).

Focke-Wulf Projekt VII “Flitzer” (“Streaker“ or „Dasher)” (Revell)

TYPE: Interceptor fighter


POWER PLANT: One Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011A turbojet engine, rated at 1,300 kp thrust plus one Walter HWK 509A-2 liquid-fuel rocket engine, rated between 300 and 1,500 kp thrust

PERFORMANCE: 593 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: In March 1943 the Focke-Wulf design team in Bremen initiated a series of studies for single-seat, single turbo jet powered fighters. “Entwurf 6”, also known as “Projekt VI”, was approved for mock-up construction in February 1944. The designation was later changed to “Projekt VII” and was given the code name “Flitzer (“Streaker” or “Dasher”). The design had mid-fuselage mounted wings with moderate sweepback (32 degrees), air inlets in the wing roots, twin booms, a high mounted tail plane and a tricycle landing gear. For high speed interception the single He S 011A turbojet was to be supplemented with a Walter HWK 509 A-2 bi-fuel rocket mounted below the turbojet engine. This arrangement was later revised and the rocket engine was eliminated. Projected armament consisted of two MK 103 30mm cannon or two MK 108 30mm cannon in the lower nose and two MG 151/20 20mm cannon in the wings. The Focke-Wulf Flitzer” was well advanced in development, a full-size mock-up and some prototype sub-assemblies being completed. The project was eventually abandoned in favor of the Focke-Wulf Ta 183 “Huckebein”. In the meantime this design was in an advanced stage for series production.

Noteworthy is the fact that the Focke-Wulf “Flitzer” project had great similarity with the contemporary British de Havilland DH 100 “Vampire” (Ref.: 17, 24).

Focke-Wulf Fw P.011- 44 (Fw 250), (Unicraft, Resin) with Henschel „Zitterrochen“ („Crampfish“), (R + V Models,, Resin)

TYPE: Long-range fighter, fighter bomber. Project


POWER PLANT: Two Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 turbojet engines, rated at 1.300 kp thrust each

PERFORMANCE: 663 mph at 26,250 ft (estimated)

COMMENT: This Focke-Wulf project was submitted by Professor Kurt Tank and his team in late 1944 for a twin-jet fighter which could be used as a fighter, fighter/bomber or long-range fighter, and was to be constructed in contrast to Tanks wooden Focke-Wulf Ta 154 entirely of metal. The RLM number of 250 was assigned to this project, which had previously been held by the land version of the huge Blohm & Voss Bv 238 flying boat.
The fuselage was wide, to accommodate the nose air intake for the twin Heinkel-Hirth He S 011 jet engines that were buried in the rear fuselage. The wings were swept back at 40 degrees, with the main landing gear retracting inboard into the wing. Mounted on a “boom”, the tail unit was set high in order keep it free from jet exhaust. A single pilot sat in a pressurized cockpit located near the nose. Armament consisted of four MK 108 30mm cannon or four MG 213 20mm cannon. Also, a droppable supplemental fuel container of 1000 kg could be carried by the long-ranged fighter variant as well as guided missiles.
Further testing and work would doubtless have been needed on this project, for example, the long air intake would have resulted in a loss of power, but this could have been overcome by using leading edge or wing root air intakes instead. Even though it would have been superior in climb and turning ability than the similar Messerschmitt “Hochgeschwindigkeitsjäger” (“High-speed fighter”) Me262 HG III, but the Focke-Wulf project would have been slower and would have a longer design-to-prototype time than the Me 262 HG III. All design work was ceased in order to concentrate on Focke-Wulf’s Ta 183 “Huckebein” single jet fighter. The information learned during this project’s design was later used in the Focke-Wulf Fw P.011-45 and Fw P.011-47 jet powered night and all-weather fighter projects.
The aircraft shown here is armed with two Henschel “Zitterrochen” (“Crampfish”) radio-controlled anti-ship missiles (Ref.: 17).

Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 (Antares Models, Resin)

TYPE: Fast medium bomber, heavy fighter. Project


POWER PLANT: Three Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 turbojet engines, rated at 1,200 kp each


COMMENT: During the summer of 1944, the Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 project was on the drawing board at the same time as the Me P.1101 projects were designed, e. g. Me P.1101/92, Me P.1101/99 and Me P.1101/101. Several of these projects were of variable-geometry wing designs, a configuration which was a novelty in aircraft designing at that time.
The Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 was developed as a fast bomber and heavy fighter.The variable-sweep wings were mounted in the center of the fuselage and could be swept between 15 and 50 degrees. For take-off and landing the wings were to be set at 20 degrees and for high speed flight the wings were to be set at the maximum of 50 degrees. The tail unit was of a normal configuration, with the tail planes swept back at 60 degrees.
Three jet engines powered the Me P.1102/105, two were located beneath the fuselage nose and one was located in the tail with an air intake on the top of the rear fuselage to feed this turbojet. Either three BMW 003 or Heinkel-Hirth He S 011 jet engines were to be employed. A single pilot sat in a cockpit located in the forward fuselage and three fuel tanks of 1200 liter capacity each were located behind the cockpit. The lower fuselage held an internal bomb bay and the tricycle landing gear.
The collapse of Germany ended work on this design. All Messerschmitt documentation relating to this projects series was seized by the US and was used in the development of several post-war aircraft. The Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 project’s unusual three-engine power plant arrangement, in particular, was employed on the Martin XB-51 high-speed attack-interceptor which first flew in mid-1949 (Ref.: 17).

Horten/Gotha Go 229B-1 (Pioneer)

TYPE: Night- and all-weather fighter. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and radar observer

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 004C turbojet engines, rated at 1.100 kp each

PERFORMANCE: 600 mph at 40,000 ft

COMMENT: The Horten/Gotha Go 229B-1 was a night- and all-weather fighter variant of the basic Horten/ Gotha- Go 229A-0. The design based on the projected Horten Ho 229B V-7. Again the fuselage was lengthened to accommodate two crew members in tandem and FuG 240 Berlin radar. The flight characteristics were unchanged compared with the Horten/Gotha Go 229A-0. The project never left the drawing board.

Arado Ar E.377B with Heinkel He 162A-1 “Spatz” (“Sparrow”) (“Mistel 5”, “Mistletoe 5”), (Dragon)

TYPE: Turbojet powered glide bomb. Project

ACCOMMODATION: None. Pilot only in Heinkel He 162 A-1

POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003A-1 turbojet engines, rated at 800 kp each

PERFORMANCE: No data available

COMMENT: This “Mistel 5” project was designed as a simple glide bomb that would be powered by two turbojet engines (version B) and carried in pick-a-pack combination beneath a Heinkel He 162 “Spatz” interceptor.  Since the single turbojet engine of the He 162 would not have been powerful enough to carry the heavy “Mistel 5” composition two BMW turbojet engines were mounted under the wings of the Arado Ar E. 377. This version was known as Arado Ar E.377B and was similar in all other aspects to the unpowered glide bomb Arado Ar E.377A.
Take-off of the “Mistel 5” composition was accomplished by means of a releasable trolley, sometimes additionally boosted by two Walter HWK 109-500 take-off rockets. The trolley was similar to the one that Rheinmetall-Borsig had designed for the Arado Ar 234A “Blitz” bomber and reconnaissance versions. Since the “Mistel 5” composition was heavier an extra set of wheels were added to the new trolley. Once the composition reached take-off speed the trolley was released and slowed-down by means of one to five parachutes.
A piloted version was also planned as suicide weapon but not realized. The Arado Ar E.377, neither version A nor version B, ever reached prototype status (Ref.: 17).

Blohm & Voss Bv P.196.01-01 (Planet, Resin)

TYPE: Dive bomber, ground attack aircraft. Project


POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003 turbojet engines, rated at 900 kp each

PERFORMANCE: 553 mph at 16,405 ft

COMMENT: This Blohm & Voss dive bomber and ground attack aircraft project of 1944 was of a twin boom design with each boom having a bomb bay in the forward section capable of holding a SC 250 bomb. The aircraft was powered by two BMW 003 turbojet engines mounted side-by-side under the center nacelle in which the cockpit and armament was located. The heavy armament consisted of four fuselage mounted MG 151/20 20mm cannon. The landing gear was a conventional “tail-dragger” arrangement with extended track width. Although detail planning was in advanced stage the project was not favored by the “Technische Amt” (Technical bureau) of the RLM (Ref.: 17).

Arado Ar E.377A with Arado Ar 234C-3 “Blitz” (Lightning) (“Mistel 5”, Mistletoe 5”), (Dragon)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification explosive filled glide bomb as “Mistel” composition. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in Arado Ar 234C-3

POWER PLANT: None with glide bomb, two BMW 003A turbojet engines with Arado Ar 234C-2, rated at 850 kp each

PERFORMANCE: Data not available

COMMENT: This “Mistel 5” project was one of the last glide bomb developments submitted to the RLM before the end of WW II. Arado, working with Rheinmetall-Borsig, designed a simple glide bomb that would be powered (version B) or unpowered (version A) and carried beneath the Arado 234 “Blitz” bomber or Heinkel He 162 “Spatz” interceptor. The purpose of this glide bomb, which could be guided by radio control or a target guidance system, was to attack targets such as ships or military facilities.
construction of the Arado Ar E.377 was wooden throughout the entire aircraft. The fuselage was circular in cross section and was cigar shaped. The nose held 2,000 kg of high explosive especially suitable for ship attacks. In addition 500 kg of an incendiary liquid was stored in the rear fuselage which also acted as ballast to counterbalance the forward warhead. The wings were tapered and shoulder mounted. They also served as auxiliary fuel tanks for the guide aircraft. A cruciform tail unit was mounted at the rear of the fuselage. For take-off the “Mistel 5” composition was set on a releasable trolley, developed by Rheinmetal-Borsig.
Upon arrival of the target the E.377 glide bomb was released by means of explosive bolts and flew to the target by means of a radio-control (Ref.:17).