Category Archives: Trainer

Trainer

Yokosuka K5Y2 (“Willow”)

TYPE: Intermediate trainer

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two

POWER PLANT: One Hitachi “Amakaze” radial engine, rated at 300 hp

PERFORMANCE: 132 mph

COMMENT: The Yokosuka K5Y2 was a two-seat unequal-span biplane trainer (Allied reporting name “Willow”) that served in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Due to its bright orange paint scheme (applied to all Japanese military trainers for visibility), it earned the nickname “Red dragonfly”, after a type of insect common throughout Japan.
The aircraft was based on the Yokosuka Navy Type 91 Intermediate Trainer, but stability problems led to a redesign by Kawanishi in 1933. It entered service in 1934 as Navy Type 93 Intermediate Trainer K5Y1 with fixed tail-skid landing gear, and remained in use throughout the war. Floatplane types K5Y2 and K5Y3 were also produced. After the initial 60 examples by Kawanishi, production was continued by Watanabe (556 aircraft built), Mitsubishi (60), Hitachi (1,393), First Naval Air Technical Arsenal (75), Nakajima (24), Nippon (2,733), and Fuji (896), for a total of 5,770. These aircraft were the mainstay of Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service’s flight training’s, and as intermediate trainers, they were capable of performing demanding aerobatic maneuvers. Two further land-based versions, the K5Y4 with a 480 hp “Amakaze” 21A engine and the K5Y5 with a 515 hp “Amakaze” 15, were projected but never built.
A K5Y of the Kamikaze Special Attack Corps 3rd Ryuko Squadron was credited with sinking the destroyer USS Callaghan on July 29, 1945, the last US warship lost to kamikaze attack during the war (Ref.: 24).

M6A1-K “Nanzan” (“South Mountain”), (‘Shisei-Seiran Kai), (MPM-Models)

TYPE: Trainer aircraft for Aichi M6A1 “Seiran”

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and trainer

POWER PLANT: One Aichi Atsuta Type 32 liquid-cooled engine, rated at 1,400 hp

PERFORMANCE: 310 mph at 17,060 ft

COMMENT:  The Aichi M6A1-K “Seiran Kai” was a trainer version of the submarine-launched attack floatplane Aichi M6A1 “Seiran”. It was fitted with an inwardly-retracting undercarriage, and the folding tip of the rudder was dispensed with as the absence of floats improved directional stability. The popular name of the M6A1-K was later changed to “Nanzan” (Southern Mountain”).
Two prototypes of this aircraft were built and flight tested before the war in the Pacific ended in 1945 (Ref.: 24).

Yokosuka MXY8 “Akigusa” (“Autumn Grass”), (Wings Models, Vacu-formed)

TYPE: Tailless glider/trainer

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only

POWER PLANT: None

PERFORMANCE: No data available

COMMENT: The Yokosuka MXY8 “Akigusa” (“Autumn grass”) was a training glider built in parallel with the Mitsubishi J8M rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
The J8M was to have simply been a licence-built Messerschmitt Me 163 “Komet” (“Comet”), but due to difficulties in obtaining technical materials from Germany, it eventually had to be designed almost from scratch. The MXY8 was designed in parallel with the J8M to validate the design, and then to provide pilot training during the development of the actual interceptor. The Imperial Japanese Army Airforce designation for the trainer was Mitsubishi Ku-13
The MXY8 was built entirely of wood, and fitted with ballast tanks that would be filled with water to simulate the weight and therefore flight characteristics of a fully equipped J8M. Some 50-60 of these gliders were eventually built.
A more advanced trainer, the MXY9, equipped with a primitive turbojet engine was planned, but was never produced (Ref.: 24).