Category Archives: Composite

Composite

Junkers Ju 268 with Heinkel He 162A-2 (“Mistel 5”, “Mistletoe 5”) (Ju 268 completely scratch-built, He 162 Revell)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification destroyer. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in the Heinkel He 162

POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003A-1 turbojet engines, rated at 800 kp thrust each in the Ju 268 and one BMW 003A-1 turbojet engine in the He 162A-2

PERFORMANCE: 497 mph

COMMENT: The Junkers Ju 268 was the un-manned bomber component of the “Mistel 5” parasite bomber project designed in Germany during 1944.It was a composite bomber comprising a Heinkel He 162A-2 piloted component and a specially developed Arado E377 glider bomb. Due to shortages at the Arado design offices, several other composites were studied as replacements for the Arado E377, and in late 1944 Junkers proposed the Ju268 as an alternate bomber component for the “Mistel 5”, with a Messerschmitt Me 262 studied as an alternative piloted component. The Ju 268 was simply designed with a cylindrical wooden fuselage, a hollow-charge in the nose part, rectangular mid-mounted wings, and a cruciform un-swept tail unit. A jettisonable tricycle landing gear was fixed attached to the fuselage during take-off only and power was provided by two BMW 003 or Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engines. For suicide- or “Kamikaze”-missions a manned version of the Ju 268 was under study with a glazed cockpit section in the front of the aircraft. No further details are known and the project never left the drawing-board (Ref.: 20, 24).

Junkers Ju 287 with Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a (‘Mistel’, Mistletoe), (Ju 287 Airmodel, Vacu-formed, Me 262 Matchbox, Start-trolley and other parts scratch-built)

TYPE: Anti-ship and –fortification destroyer. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in Me 262

POWER PLANT: Two Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 turbojet engines, rated at 1,500 kp each (Ju 287) and two Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engines, rated at 950 kp each (Me 262)

PERFORMANCE: 500 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: In desperate attempts to stop the forward rushing Allied troops several proposals were offered using different pilotless aircraft as guided missile in pickapack combination with a piloted leading aircraft (‘Mistel’, ‘Mistletoe’). They should be used against ships, fortifications, and troop concentrations. The unmanned aircraft with a large hollow-charge warhead was guided to vicinity of its target by a single-seat fighter temporarily attached to a superstructure above the fuselage. When the objective was reached, the pilot of the upper component set the controls to approach the target in a shallow glide, and at the appropriate distance detached his aircraft and climbed away, the pilotless lower component continuing on its set course.
In March 1945 a proposal was submitted using a variant of the brand new Junkers Ju 287 as guided missile in combination with the Messerschmitt Me 262. This Ju 287 was somewhat smaller than the original aircraft, had the same wing and tail arrangement, and was to be powered by two or four turbojet engines of various types. For take-off a special trolley was developed by Rheinmetall-Borsig. There is no evidence whether this project ever was seriously discussed with the authorities (Ref.: 16).

Lippisch P.13a (RS-Model; Resin) with Dornier Do 217K-1 (Italeri)

TYPE: High-speed experimental fighter project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only

POWER PLANT: One Kronach-Lorin coal burning ramjet, power output unknown

PERFORMANCE: 1.025 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: The Lippisch P.13a was an experimental ramjet-powered delta wing interceptor aircraft designed in late 1944. The aircraft never made it past the drawing board, but testing of wind-tunnel models in the DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) thigh-speed wind tunnel showed that the design had extraordinary stability into the Mach 2.6 range. As conventional fuels were in extremely short supply by late 1944, Lippisch proposed that the P.13a be powered by coal. Initially, it was proposed that a wire-mesh basket holding coal be mounted behind a nose air intake, protruding slightly into the airflow and ignited by a gas burner. Following wind-tunnel testing of the ramjet and the coal basket, modifications were incorporated to provide more efficient combustion. The coal was to take the form of small granules instead of irregular lumps, to produce a controlled and even burn, and the basket was altered to a mesh drum revolving on a vertical axis at 60 rpm. A jet of flame from tanks of bottled gas would fire into the basket once the P.13a had reached operating speed (above 200 mph). The aircraft started on a trolley by using solid-fuel rockets or by towplane. For tests it could be launched by a carrier aircraft. In order to test this unorthodox design a test glider DM-1 was built by students from technical faculty of Darmstadt and Munich (DM 1 = Darmstadt-München 1). Furthermore, Film footage exists which shows a gliding test of a scaled-down model of the Lippisch P.13a. These tests began in May 1944 at Spitzerberg, near Vienna, before Nazi Germany collapsed (Ref.: 23).

Focke-Wulf Ta 154A-0 (Pioneer) with Fw 190F-8 (Revell) “Mistel 7”, Mistletoe 7)

TYPE: Bomber Formation Destroyer (” Pulkzerstörer”) as as pickaback (“Mistel”) combination of a Ta 154 and a Fw 190

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in the Fw 190

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 213E, rated at 1,750 h.p. (Ta 154) and BMW 801D-2, rated at 1,700 h.p. (Fw 190)

PERFORMANCE: Not available

COMMENT: Six  Ta 154 pre-production aircraft should be adapted for the “Huckepack” composite role. The Ta 154 had an explosive charge in the forward fuselage and was piloted by a Focke Wulf Fw 190 . It was proposed that the Mistel combination – reportedly designated “Mistel 7” (“Mistletoe 7”) – should be aimed at the bomber formation, the pilot detached his aircraft from the superstructure and then detonated the charge by radio signal. None combination was realized.

Arado Ar 234C-3 (Dragon) with Focke-Wulf “Rammer” (Unicraft, Resin)

Dornier Do 217V-3 with DFS 228A-0 (Italeri, Huma)