Category Archives: Composite

Composite

Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a missile beneath a Messerschmitt Me 262A-2a/U-2, “Mistel”, (“Mistletoe”), (MPM)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification destroyer Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a missile. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two in Messerschmitt Me 262A-2a/U-2 only

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 004B turbojet engines each aircraft, rated at 950 kp thrust each

PERFORMANCE: No data available

COMMENT: In the last stage of WW II in Europe the RLM made great effort to deploy a great variety of composite aircraft (“Misteln”, “Mistletoes”) against enemy ground installations, troop concentrations, harbor facilities, bridges, ships, etc. and even bomber formations. In most cases elder or not for service qualified aircraft were used as un-manned,  lower bomber compartment but also reconstruction of existing aircraft or complete new constructions – most made of non-strategical materials like wood etc. – were proposed. The bomber compartment was filled with explosives and guided to the vicinity of its target by a single seat fighter temporarily attached to a superstructure above the fuselage.
One of the extraordinary proposals was the combination of a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a or Me 262A-2a/U2 as guide aircraft to an un-manned Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 as guided bomb. The cockpit canopy was faired over and all equipment stripped down to only those needed to keep the bomb flying. Nose of the aircraft was filled with explosive as well as two additional tanks setup in the fuselage. Three bomb load versions were proposed:
Model A. Armored nose of the fuselage and additional tanks filled with 4,460 kg of liquid explosive,
Model B: Armored nose formed of solid explosive, additional tanks filled with blocks of solid explosive, total amount restricted and
Model C: Armored nose formed of 2,450 kg solid explosive, additional tanks filled with 2,760 kg liquid explosive, total amount 5,210 kg.
The upper component of this “Mistel” composition – number of “Mistel” variant not clearly known – was a two-seater Messerschmitt Me 262A-2/U-2. Besides the pilot a second crew member was lying in prone position in a glazed nose section of the fuselage. He guided the bomb into the target by means of a television set “Tonne-Seedorf”. In the cone of the lower (bomb) compartment a television camera (“Tonne”) was installed and the radio operator had a television tube (“Seedorf”) with relative high resolution. By means of radio-control the missile was guided to the target.
The project was soon rejected. It became clear that a pilot of a Messerschmitt Me 262 had enough problems with his own machine and to handle two of these excentric aircraft together seemed to be impossible.

Junkers Ju 268 with Heinkel He 162A-2 (“Mistel 5”, “Mistletoe 5”) (Ju 268 completely scratch-built, He 162 Revell)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification destroyer. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in the Heinkel He 162

POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003A-1 turbojet engines, rated at 800 kp thrust each in the Ju 268 and one BMW 003A-1 turbojet engine in the He 162A-2

PERFORMANCE: 497 mph

COMMENT: The Junkers Ju 268 was the un-manned bomber component of the “Mistel 5” parasite bomber project designed in Germany during 1944.It was a composite bomber comprising a Heinkel He 162A-2 piloted component and a specially developed Arado E377 glider bomb. Due to shortages at the Arado design offices, several other composites were studied as replacements for the Arado E377, and in late 1944 Junkers proposed the Ju268 as an alternate bomber component for the “Mistel 5”, with a Messerschmitt Me 262 studied as an alternative piloted component. The Ju 268 was simply designed with a cylindrical wooden fuselage, a hollow-charge of up to 10 tons of explosive in the nose part, rectangular mid-mounted wings, and a cruciform un-swept tail unit. A jettisonable tricycle landing gear was fixed attached to the fuselage during take-off only and power was provided by two BMW 003 or Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engines. For suicide- or “Kamikaze”-missions a manned version of the Ju 268 was under study with a glazed cockpit section in the front of the aircraft. No further details are known and the project never left the drawing-board (Ref.: 20, 24).

Junkers Ju 287 with Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a (‘Mistel’, Mistletoe), (Ju 287 Airmodel, Vacu-formed, Me 262 Matchbox, Start-trolley and other parts scratch-built)

TYPE: Anti-ship and –fortification destroyer. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in Me 262

POWER PLANT: Two Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 turbojet engines, rated at 1,500 kp each (Ju 287) and two Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engines, rated at 950 kp each (Me 262)

PERFORMANCE: 500 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: In desperate attempts to stop the forward rushing Allied troops several proposals were offered using different pilotless aircraft as guided missile in pickapack combination with a piloted leading aircraft (‘Mistel’, ‘Mistletoe’). They should be used against ships, fortifications, and troop concentrations. The unmanned aircraft with a large hollow-charge warhead was guided to vicinity of its target by a single-seat fighter temporarily attached to a superstructure above the fuselage. When the objective was reached, the pilot of the upper component set the controls to approach the target in a shallow glide, and at the appropriate distance detached his aircraft and climbed away, the pilotless lower component continuing on its set course.
In March 1945 a proposal was submitted using a variant of the brand new Junkers Ju 287 as guided missile in combination with the Messerschmitt Me 262. This Ju 287 was somewhat smaller than the original aircraft, had the same wing and tail arrangement, and was to be powered by two or four turbojet engines of various types. For take-off a special trolley was developed by Rheinmetall-Borsig. There is no evidence whether this project ever was seriously discussed with the authorities (Ref.: 16).

Lippisch P.13a (RS-Model; Resin) with Dornier Do 217K-1 (Italeri)

TYPE: High-speed experimental fighter project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only

POWER PLANT: One Kronach-Lorin coal burning ramjet, power output unknown

PERFORMANCE: 1.025 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: The Lippisch P.13a was an experimental ramjet-powered delta wing interceptor aircraft designed in late 1944. The aircraft never made it past the drawing board, but testing of wind-tunnel models in the DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) thigh-speed wind tunnel showed that the design had extraordinary stability into the Mach 2.6 range. As conventional fuels were in extremely short supply by late 1944, Lippisch proposed that the P.13a be powered by coal. Initially, it was proposed that a wire-mesh basket holding coal be mounted behind a nose air intake, protruding slightly into the airflow and ignited by a gas burner. Following wind-tunnel testing of the ramjet and the coal basket, modifications were incorporated to provide more efficient combustion. The coal was to take the form of small granules instead of irregular lumps, to produce a controlled and even burn, and the basket was altered to a mesh drum revolving on a vertical axis at 60 rpm. A jet of flame from tanks of bottled gas would fire into the basket once the P.13a had reached operating speed (above 200 mph). The aircraft started on a trolley by using solid-fuel rockets or by towplane. For tests it could be launched by a carrier aircraft. In order to test this unorthodox design a test glider DM-1 was built by students from technical faculty of Darmstadt and Munich (DM 1 = Darmstadt-München 1). Furthermore, Film footage exists which shows a gliding test of a scaled-down model of the Lippisch P.13a. These tests began in May 1944 at Spitzerberg, near Vienna, before Nazi Germany collapsed (Ref.: 23).

Focke-Wulf Ta 154A-0 (Pioneer) with Fw 190F-8 (Revell) “Mistel 7”, Mistletoe 7)

TYPE: Bomber Formation Destroyer (” Pulkzerstörer”) as as pickaback (“Mistel”) combination of a Ta 154 and a Fw 190

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in the Fw 190

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 213E, rated at 1,750 h.p. (Ta 154) and BMW 801D-2, rated at 1,700 h.p. (Fw 190)

PERFORMANCE: Not available

COMMENT: Six  Ta 154 pre-production aircraft should be adapted for the “Huckepack” composite role. The Ta 154 had an explosive charge in the forward fuselage and was piloted by a Focke Wulf Fw 190 . It was proposed that the Mistel combination – reportedly designated “Mistel 7” (“Mistletoe 7”) – should be aimed at the bomber formation, the pilot detached his aircraft from the superstructure and then detonated the charge by radio signal. None combination was realized.

Arado Ar 234C-3 (Dragon) with Focke-Wulf “Rammer” (Unicraft, Resin)

Dornier Do 217V-3 with DFS 228A-0 (Italeri, Huma)