Category Archives: Luftwaffe

Deutschland / Germany

Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 (Antares Models, Resin)

TYPE: Fast medium bomber, heavy fighter. Project


POWER PLANT: Three Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 turbojet engines, rated at 1,200 kp each


COMMENT: During the summer of 1944, the Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 project was on the drawing board at the same time as the Me P.1101 projects were designed, e. g. Me P.1101/92, Me P.1101/99 and Me P.1101/101. Several of these projects were of variable-geometry wing designs, a configuration which was a novelty in aircraft designing at that time.
The Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 was developed as a fast bomber and heavy fighter.The variable-sweep wings were mounted in the center of the fuselage and could be swept between 15 and 50 degrees. For take-off and landing the wings were to be set at 20 degrees and for high speed flight the wings were to be set at the maximum of 50 degrees. The tail unit was of a normal configuration, with the tail planes swept back at 60 degrees.
Three jet engines powered the Me P.1102/105, two were located beneath the fuselage nose and one was located in the tail with an air intake on the top of the rear fuselage to feed this turbojet. Either three BMW 003 or Heinkel-Hirth He S 011 jet engines were to be employed. A single pilot sat in a cockpit located in the forward fuselage and three fuel tanks of 1200 liter capacity each were located behind the cockpit. The lower fuselage held an internal bomb bay and the tricycle landing gear.
The collapse of Germany ended work on this design. All Messerschmitt documentation relating to this projects series was seized by the US and was used in the development of several post-war aircraft. The Messerschmitt Me P.1102/105 project’s unusual three-engine power plant arrangement, in particular, was employed on the Martin XB-51 high-speed attack-interceptor which first flew in mid-1949 (Ref.: 17).

Lippisch DFS 194 (Frank Airmodel, Vacu-formed)

TYPE: Rocket-powered experimental glider aircraft


POWER PLANT: One Walter R I-203 liquid-fuel rocket engine, rated at 500 kp


COMMENT: The DFS 194 was a rocket-powered aircraft designed by Alexander Lippisch at the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug (DFS – “German Institute for Sailplane Flight”).The DFS 194 was based on the Alexander Lippisch “Delta” series of tailless designs. As originally conceived, it would have been a tailless aircraft similar to his DFS 40, powered by a conventional piston engine driving a pusher propeller. The airframe was completed in this configuration in March 1938.
Lippisch’s designs had attracted the attention of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM, Reich Aviation Ministry) who believed that tailless aircraft were the best basis for a rocket-powered fighter. On January 1939, Lippisch and his team were transferred to the Messerschmitt Company to begin work on such an aircraft, under what was known as “Project X”. The DFS-194 was modified to accept a Walter R I-203 rocket engine designed by Hellmuth Walter, and by October 1939, the aircraft was undergoing engine tests at Peenemünde.
These were followed by glide tests in early 1940 leading to the first powered flight in August with Heini Dittmar at the controls. The flight went well, the DFS 194 reaching 340 mph, bettering the speed of the earlier, Walter rocket powered Heinkel He 176.
The aircraft proved to have excellent flying characteristics and proved safe to fly at nearly twice the anticipated speed. These results paved the way for the next stage of the project, which now received priority status from the RLM. The Messerschmitt Me 163 “Komet”, a considerably refined design along the same basic lines, flew the following year (Ref. 24).

Gotha-MMW Ka 430A-0 (Huma)

TYPE: Medium Assault and Freight Glider

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two + 12 troops or 1,600 kg freight



COMMENT: The Gotha Ka 430 was a medium assault and freight glider, first built in 1944. The glider was designed by A. Kalkert and Gotha design team as a potential successor of the Gotha Go 242 glider. Somewhat smaller than the earlier glider, the new design introduced a rear loading ramp, some armor protection for the crew and a manually-operated gun turret.
The Ka 430 had a conventional structure with a wing of laminated plywood construction and plywood and fabric cowering, and a welded steel-tube fuselage covered by fabric aft of the cockpit, the nose being a moulded plywood shell fitting over the metal frame work and bolted in place. The undercarriage was of fixed, levered-suspension tricycle type, and the cargo hold extended from the cockpit to just aft of the mainwheels and terminated in a loading ramp hinged  at the point where the rear fuselage swept upwards to merge with the tail-carrying boom, a section of the decking aft of the ramp hinged upwards to enlarge the opening. Slatted airbrakes were provided in the wings to steepen the glide angle and provision was made in the extreme nose for the installation of a battery of braking rockets.
To evaluate the rear fuselage and integral loading ramp a Go 242A-2 was modified to serve as a Ka 430 prototype, and the successful trials led to the placing of an order for 30 pre-production Ka 430A-0 gliders which were to be built by the Mitteldeutsche Metallwerke (MMW) at Erfurt.
The first Ka 430 A-0 (without gun turret) were completed late in 1944, successful towing trials being performed with Heinkel He 111H and Junkers Ju 88A as tugs, but only 12 of the pre-production gliders had been completed when the war situation necessitated the abandoning of the construction program (Ref.: 7)

Horten/Gotha Go 229B-1 (Pioneer)

TYPE: Night- and all-weather fighter. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and radar observer

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 004C turbojet engines, rated at 1.100 kp each

PERFORMANCE: 600 mph at 40,000 ft

COMMENT: The Horten/Gotha Go 229B-1 was a night- and all-weather fighter variant of the basic Horten/ Gotha- Go 229A-0. The design based on the projected Horten Ho 229B V-7. Again the fuselage was lengthened to accommodate two crew members in tandem and FuG 240 Berlin radar. The flight characteristics were unchanged compared with the Horten/Gotha Go 229A-0. The project never left the drawing board.

Arado Ar E.377B with Heinkel He 162A-1 “Spatz” (“Sparrow”) (“Mistel 5”, “Mistletoe 5”), (Dragon)

TYPE: Turbojet powered glide bomb. Project

ACCOMMODATION: None. Pilot only in Heinkel He 162 A-1

POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003A-1 turbojet engines, rated at 800 kp each

PERFORMANCE: No data available

COMMENT: This “Mistel 5” project was designed as a simple glide bomb that would be powered by two turbojet engines (version B) and carried in pick-a-pack combination beneath a Heinkel He 162 “Spatz” interceptor.  Since the single turbojet engine of the He 162 would not have been powerful enough to carry the heavy “Mistel 5” composition two BMW turbojet engines were mounted under the wings of the Arado Ar E. 377. This version was known as Arado Ar E.377B and was similar in all other aspects to the unpowered glide bomb Arado Ar E.377A.
Take-off of the “Mistel 5” composition was accomplished by means of a releasable trolley, sometimes additionally boosted by two Walter HWK 109-500 take-off rockets. The trolley was similar to the one that Rheinmetall-Borsig had designed for the Arado Ar 234A “Blitz” bomber and reconnaissance versions. Since the “Mistel 5” composition was heavier an extra set of wheels were added to the new trolley. Once the composition reached take-off speed the trolley was released and slowed-down by means of one to five parachutes.
A piloted version was also planned as suicide weapon but not realized. The Arado Ar E.377, neither version A nor version B, ever reached prototype status (Ref.: 17).

Blohm & Voss Bv P.196.01-01 (Planet, Resin)

TYPE: Dive bomber, ground attack aircraft. Project


POWER PLANT: Two BMW 003 turbojet engines, rated at 900 kp each

PERFORMANCE: 553 mph at 16,405 ft

COMMENT: This Blohm & Voss dive bomber and ground attack aircraft project of 1944 was of a twin boom design with each boom having a bomb bay in the forward section capable of holding a SC 250 bomb. The aircraft was powered by two BMW 003 turbojet engines mounted side-by-side under the center nacelle in which the cockpit and armament was located. The heavy armament consisted of four fuselage mounted MG 151/20 20mm cannon. The landing gear was a conventional “tail-dragger” arrangement with extended track width. Although detail planning was in advanced stage the project was not favored by the “Technische Amt” (Technical bureau) of the RLM (Ref.: 17).

Arado Ar E.377A with Arado Ar 234C-3 “Blitz” (Lightning) (“Mistel 5”, Mistletoe 5”), (Dragon)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification explosive filled glide bomb as “Mistel” composition. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in Arado Ar 234C-3

POWER PLANT: None with glide bomb, two BMW 003A turbojet engines with Arado Ar 234C-2, rated at 850 kp each

PERFORMANCE: Data not available

COMMENT: This “Mistel 5” project was one of the last glide bomb developments submitted to the RLM before the end of WW II. Arado, working with Rheinmetall-Borsig, designed a simple glide bomb that would be powered (version B) or unpowered (version A) and carried beneath the Arado 234 “Blitz” bomber or Heinkel He 162 “Spatz” interceptor. The purpose of this glide bomb, which could be guided by radio control or a target guidance system, was to attack targets such as ships or military facilities.
construction of the Arado Ar E.377 was wooden throughout the entire aircraft. The fuselage was circular in cross section and was cigar shaped. The nose held 2,000 kg of high explosive especially suitable for ship attacks. In addition 500 kg of an incendiary liquid was stored in the rear fuselage which also acted as ballast to counterbalance the forward warhead. The wings were tapered and shoulder mounted. They also served as auxiliary fuel tanks for the guide aircraft. A cruciform tail unit was mounted at the rear of the fuselage. For take-off the “Mistel 5” composition was set on a releasable trolley, developed by Rheinmetal-Borsig.
Upon arrival of the target the E.377 glide bomb was released by means of explosive bolts and flew to the target by means of a radio-control (Ref.:17).

Arado Ar 234R-1B (Dragon, Parts from Unicraft, Parts scratch-built

TYPE: High-speed, high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. Project


POWER PLANT: One Walter HWK 509C liquid-fuel rocket engine, rated at 2,400 kp thrust (main chamber: 2,000 kp thrust, auxiliary chamber 400 kp thrust)

PERFORMANCE: 569 mph (estimated)

COMMENT: In 1944 the Arado design team proposed two liquid-rocket engines powered reconnaissance versions of the Arado Ar 234 “Blitz” (Lightning) high-speed bomber. The Arado Ar 234R, as it was designated, would consist of a regular Ar 234C frame but without turbojet engines. Instead two pods were installed under the wing, each containing a Walter HWK 109-509A bi-fuel rocket engine (project Ar 234R-1A). The second project Ar 234R-1B was to be powered by a Walter HWK 109-509C two chamber liquid-fuel rocket engine mounted in the rear section. Therefore a cowling would have been installed in the rear fuselage underneath the rudder. The upper rocket engine called “Steigofen” (Accelerate chamber) delivered 2,000 kp and was to be used for climbing to altitude while the lower rocket engine, “Marschofen” (Cruising chamber) delivered 400 kp thrust and was used to power the aircraft during horizontal flight. During return flight – over a distance of more than 155 miles ­– the aircraft flew as a glider without power. The wing had a laminar profile with its maximal thickness at 50 to 60% chord. The glide ratio was calculated to 1:14.
Because of the limited fuel capacity and short endurance of the rocket engines the Ar 234R-1b was to be towed by a Heinkel He 177 “Greif” heavy bomber. A possible reconnaissance mission in the London area was calculated as follows: After take-off from a Luftwaffe base near Paris the aircraft was towed to the operational altitude of app. 26,247 ft, reached near Calais. After release of towline with “Steigofen” at full throttle the aircraft was powered at a speed of app. 506 mph to an altitude of app. 55,775 ft. This height was reached in a few minutes app. near the coast of Dover. During horizontal flight intermittent ignition of the “Marschofen” accelerated the aircraft with 569 mph to the target (i. e. London). After photo mission the aircraft flew back to the coast of England at a speed of 541mph and the descent back to the home base was flown as a glider. The mission was estimated for 21 minutes.
Although the Arado Ar 234R-1B project was promising it was abandoned in favor of the DFS 228 reconnaissance rocket-driven glider giving even better ceiling of 75,460 ft (Ref: 16).

Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a missile with Messerschmitt Me 262A-2a/U-2, “Mistel”, (“Mistletoe”), (MPM)

TYPE: Anti-ship and -fortification destroyer Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a missile. Project

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two in Messerschmitt Me 262A-2a/U-2 only

POWER PLANT: Two Junkers Jumo 004B turbojet engines each aircraft, rated at 950 kp thrust each

PERFORMANCE: No data available

COMMENT: In the last stage of WW II in Europe the RLM made great effort to deploy a great variety of composite aircraft (“Misteln”, “Mistletoes”) against enemy ground installations, troop concentrations, harbor facilities, bridges, ships, etc. and even bomber formations. In most cases elder or not for service qualified aircraft were used as un-manned,  lower bomber compartment but also reconstruction of existing aircraft or complete new constructions – most made of non-strategical materials like wood etc. – were proposed. The bomber compartment was filled with explosives and guided to the vicinity of its target by a single seat fighter temporarily attached to a superstructure above the fuselage.
One of the extraordinary proposals was the combination of a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1a or Me 262A-2a/U2 as guide aircraft to an un-manned Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 as guided bomb. The cockpit canopy was faired over and all equipment stripped down to only those needed to keep the bomb flying. Nose of the aircraft was filled with explosive as well as two additional tanks setup in the fuselage. Three bomb load versions were proposed:
Model A. Armored nose of the fuselage and additional tanks filled with 4,460 kg of liquid explosive,
Model B: Armored nose formed of solid explosive, additional tanks filled with blocks of solid explosive, total amount restricted and
Model C: Armored nose formed of 2,450 kg solid explosive, additional tanks filled with 2,760 kg liquid explosive, total amount 5,210 kg.
The upper component of this “Mistel” composition – number of “Mistel” variant not clearly known – was a two-seater Messerschmitt Me 262A-2/U-2. Besides the pilot a second crew member was lying in prone position in a glazed nose section of the fuselage. He guided the bomb into the target by means of a television set “Tonne-Seedorf”. In the cone of the lower (bomb) compartment a television camera (“Tonne”) was installed and the radio operator had a television tube (“Seedorf”) with relative high resolution. By means of radio-control the missile was guided to the target.
The project was soon rejected. It became clear that a pilot of a Messerschmitt Me 262 had enough problems with his own machine and to handle two of these excentric aircraft together seemed to be impossible.

Henschel Hs P.87 (Planet, Resin)

TYPE: Light bomber, ground attack aircraft. Project.

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and observer

POWER PLANT: One Daimler-Benz DB 610 liquid-cooled engine, rated at 2,900 hp, driving two four-bladed pusher propellers


COMMENT: In 194/42 the design team of Henschel Aircraft Company proposed an advanced project of a fast light bomber and ground attack aircraft. Power was provided by a single Daimler-Benz DB 610 engine that in fact consisted of two Daimler-Benz DB 605 liquid-cooled engines, joined side-by side. The engine drove two four-bladed pusher type propellers via an extension shaft. A similar design but powered by a Daimler-Benz DB 613 was the Henschel Hs P. 75 fighter and interceptor project. Both designs were radical in so far as a canard arrangement was proposed with elevators in front and the wing positioned to the rear. By that enough space was available to integrate the wide and bulky power unit. Furthermore, a large weapon bay in the in the forward fuselage was available. The disadvantage of this arrangement is the permanent shifting of the center of gravity. Vertical fins were located at the wingtips. Intensive work was done concerning the lay-out of the cockpit in order to give the two crew members an excellent view forward. In case of emergency the cabin could be blown up in order to prevent a collision with the eight-bladed propellers. Detailed construction was in an advanced stage when the RLM refused this project with the flimsy comment “… the pilots couldn’t acclimatize with a propeller in the back and the elevators in front”. So further work on this project was stopped (Ref.: 16, 17).